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Diagnosis of infective endocarditis begins with examination of propranolol pills and his complaints. It is revealed that the patient has undergone medical procedures in the near past, which were accompanied by chills even at low temperatures. Unreasonable fever for more than 2-3 days should be alarming in patients with congenital and acquired pathology of the heart valve apparatus and in drug addicts. Upon examination, a regurgitation noise over the heart, rhythm disturbances, anemia, various petechiae on the skin and mucous membranes, as well as an enlarged spleen are revealed.

Clinical blood test. Characterized by accelerated ESR, thrombocytopenia, anemia and leukocytosis. A biochemical blood test reveals hypergammaglobulinemia, positive rheumatoid factor and elevated levels of CIC (circulating immune complexes). Analysis of urine. With glomerulonephritis, blood is found in the urine, protein, casts and bacteria are cultured. Performing specific serological tests provides valuable information for the diagnosis of endocarditis caused by chlamydia, rickettsia, and brucella. Blood test for blood culture to determine the sensitivity of the pathogen to antibiotics.

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This is an extremely important study, since infective endocarditis is a disease in which the release of a bacterial agent in the blood is the most important criterion for making a correct diagnosis. If the sampling rules are followed, the frequency of pathogen isolation is quite high (90%). In untreated endocarditis, bacteremia is always present. Three blood cultures are performed and taken from different peripheral veins every hour before starting antibiotic treatment. Empiric antibiotic therapy is then started.

In children, at least 5 samples must be taken for blood culture, also before starting antibacterial therapy. The patient's body temperature at the time of blood collection does not play any role. In subacute IE, euIf the patient’s condition allows to buy propranolol online for treatment, three blood cultures are done throughout the day. A prerequisite for making a diagnosis is the isolation of the same pathogen from several separate blood samples. If Staphylococcus epidermidis is detected in one of the samples, you need to think about the possibility of accidental contamination. An interesting fact is that bacteremia can occur without infection of the heart valves. On the other hand, endocarditis can also develop with a negative blood culture test if the patient was previously prescribed antibiotics for an unspecified fever.

Conducting antibiotic therapy. Prescribing antibiotics before blood collection reduces the release of pathogens by up to 40%. Failure to comply with the rules for collecting blood and transporting it. Qualitative technology for microbiological research. If the cause is fungi, chlamydia, mycoplasma, requiring other cultivation conditions or serological research methods. Instrumental diagnostics.

Echocardiography is a key diagnostic method that helps identify. It is important that the risk of embolism, valvular regurgitation and its dynamics during treatment can be assessed. The study is useful for assessing the prognosis and dynamics after surgical treatment. The resolution of transthoracic echocardiography is 80%.

Tests and diagnosis of endocarditis. In some cases (up to 30%), this study fails to isolate the pathogen. This may be due to several reasons. The additional use of transesophageal echocardiography increases diagnostic efficiency to 94%, since this method eliminates unnecessary obstacles to the ultrasound signal (ribs, subcutaneous fat, air in the lungs). The high-frequency sensor is located in close proximity to buy inderal pills online, and this significantly improves the quality of the examination. This method makes it possible to more accurately diagnose myocardial abscesses and see the smallest vegetations (1–1.5 mm).

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Diagnostics is not limited to echocardiography; in some cases other imaging methods may be needed.

X-ray of the chest organs. Determines the expansion of the boundaries of the heart and the mediastinum as a whole. If there is a pulmonary infarction, then wedge-shaped shadows are found in the lung in its middle and lower field. A dynamic examination confirms the disappearance of these signs after 10 days, if there is no pneumonia or hemorrhagic pleurisy, which can develop against the background of inderal pills.

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